Popular uprisings have taken place in Sudan against military rule and the delayed transition to a civilian government. (AP)  

Intense fighting has gripped Sudan's capital 18 months after a military coup, further derailing a transition to democratic elections and intensifying turmoil in the African country.

Leaders from Sudan's army and the powerful paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) have been at odds over integrating forces, part of a drawn-out process to install civilian-led rule following the 2019 ouster of long-standing leader Omar al Bashir in a military coup after mass protests in the country.

October 25, 2021: Coup

On October 25, 2021, a second coup takes place in Sudan, led by General Abdel Fattah al Burhan, the head of the military council that has been in power since the 2019 coup.

The military dissolves the power-sharing transitional council and detained its leaders, including Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok.

A state of emergency is declared and the coup is met with widespread protests and condemnation from the international community.

Security forces kill seven protesters and wound dozens in the violence.

The United States and the World Bank suspend vital aid to Sudan.

Abdel Fattah al-Burhan led a coup against military transitional council in 2012. Photo/Reuters

November 11: New ruling council

The African Union suspends Sudan.

The United Nations and the United States call on Sudan's military rulers to restore a civilian-led government.

On November 11, Sudan's de facto leader Burhan, forms a new ruling council.

Burhan leads the council. The main bloc demanding a transfer to civilian rule is excluded.

November 21: PM returns

On November 21, Burhan agrees to restore the transition to civilian rule, with elections slated for July 2023.

Hamdok is reinstated as premier. Several civilian leaders are released.

Protests continue and are harshly repressed.

January 2, 2022: PM quits

As the death toll from the protests mounts, Hamdok resigns on January 2, 2022.

UN-brokered negotiations, boycotted by the main civilian groups, start in early June but are quickly broken off.

Omar al-Bashir was toppled in 2019 following mass protests in Sudan. The country has been in turmoil since the. Photo/Reuters

July 4: Military to step aside

On July 4, Burhan says the army will quit the talks in order to allow civilian groups to form a government.

The main civilian bloc says it suspects a ruse.

The World Bank earmarks $100 million in aid for Sudan.

December 5: Preliminary deal

Sudan's military, paramilitary and most civilian leaders sign an interim deal on December 5 aimed at restoring the civilian transition within two years.

Protesters take to the streets, complaining the accord ignores demands for justice for the more than 120 pro-democracy demonstrators killed since Burhan's coup.

January 2023: Negotiations

Military and civilian leaders meet in early January 2023 to discuss key contentious issues such as transitional justice, accountability and security reforms, including the integration of the feared paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) into the regular army.

April 13: 'Dangerous' tensions

Tensions emerge between the army and RSF over the proposed integration.

Burhan's deputy Mohamed Hamdan Daglo, who commands the RSF, says the 2021 coup was a "mistake" that has invigorated remnants of Bashir's regime, remarks seen as referring to Burhan.

The planned signing of a final deal on democratic transition is twice postponed.

On April 13, the army warns Sudan is at a "dangerous... turning point".

April 15: Fighting in Khartoum

On April 15, explosions and gunfire rock the capital Khartoum, with the paramilitaries and army exchanging accusations of attacking each other's bases.

The RSF says it controls Khartoum airport and the presidential palace, claims denied by the army. Sudan's air force targets RSF bases.

Civilian leaders call for an immediate ceasefire, as well as the African Union, United Nations and others.

TRT World