Around 150,000 forest elephants are remaining in the wild, Photo: WWF

By Thomas Breuer

When I started working in the Congo Basin 25 years ago, I remember largely intact tracts of rainforest and relatively large, undisturbed populations of forest elephants.

Back then the forests were much more extensive and less fragmented, so that humans rarely came into contact with elephants, and therefore, there was very little human-elephant confrontation.

The situation today is very different. Poaching for ivory, increasing human activity and encroachment into formerly pristine rainforests, fragmentation of wildlife habitats and rising conflict with people have all resulted in a significantly depleted African forest elephant population.

The forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) is one of two remaining African elephant species, the other being the savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana).

Historically, forest elephants thrived in the dense rainforests of west and central Africa but according to the last assessment released in 2021, their population declined by a staggering 86% over a period of 31 years.

With around 150,000 forest elephants remaining in the wild, they are now listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Uniqueness Forest elephants have evolved unique traits that distinguish them from their savanna cousins.

They are smaller, with straighter tusks that are thinner and more downward-pointing.

Ecosystem engineers

Their rounded ears are larger, and their trunks are slender and elongated, enabling them to maneuver more efficiently through the thick undergrowth.

These adaptations are essential for their survival in the dense rainforest environment.

According to a 2016 study, one unfortunate distinction is that forest elephants reproduce more slowly, and their generation time is about 31 years, which is longer than that of the savanna elephants.

Forest elephants start to breed at a later age, and with longer intervals between calves, than other elephant species, making it more difficult for their populations to recover and stabilise.

Congo Basin look The survival of the African rainforest ecosystem is intricately linked to the presence of forest elephants.

As ‘’ecosystem engineers’’, they help shape their habitat and maintain biodiversity through seed dispersal and contributing to forest regeneration.

African forest elephants feed on leaves, grasses, seeds, fruit, roots and tree bark. They open up pathways through the underbrush providing access to food for other species.

Over several years some of these pathways expand into highways, contributing to the formation of large natural forest clearings commonly referred to as ‘bais’ in the local languages, that provide minerals, water and protein-rich vegetation that cannot be found in the forest.

Forest elephants play a critical role in the forest carbon cycle doing their part in slowing down the effects of climate change.

By eating fast growing understory trees that capture less carbon, they thin out the rainforest undergrowth and allow larger trees that store more carbon to grow better, directly contributing to the carbon storage capacities of the habitats they reside in.

They also help maintain the nutrient flow in the environment necessary for sustaining agriculture for communities living in and around these forests.


Despite the importance of forest elephants, they are facing bigger challenges than their savanna-dwelling cousins.

Because they have slower breeding rates, they are more vulnerable to poaching, because they cannot "bounce back" as rapidly from population reductions.

Besides the threat of international trade in ivory and their inherent inability to rapidly replace themselves, an emerging threat for forest elephants might be the decline in fruit production in the forest.

A study published in September 2020 from Lope National Park in Central Gabon found that climate change caused an 81% decline in fruit production over the last thirty years (1986–2018).

That in turn resulted in an 11% decline in elephants’ body condition between 2008 and 2018.

As habitats contract and human population expands, people and elephants are increasingly coming into contact with each other.

Forest elephants reproduce more slowly with a generation time of about 31 years. Photo: WWF

Where farms border elephant habitat or cross elephant migration corridors, damage to crops and villages can become commonplace.

This often leads to confrontations that can result in the unfortunate loss of human lives and livelihoods as well as the death of elephants.

Poaching certainly has also disturbed elephant populations as large musth males and experienced females have been primarily targeted by poachers.

Having witnessed the slaughtering of family members, such experiences have certainly left traces of trauma in young elephants, and as the adage goes: "an elephant never forgets".

Not too late

With forest elephants facing an uphill struggle for survival, World Wide Fund for Nature, (WWF) is working with governments, local communities and partners in range countries to reduce and eliminate the threats that forest elephants face.

Forest elephants need to move across large swathes of forest to survive, but the migration corridors they have depended on for generations are being converted into agricultural lands, or used for infrastructure, extractive industries and other human activities at an alarming rate.

We need to reverse these trends by focusing our efforts on conserving the rapidly shrinking and fragmenting forest elephant habitats.

Human-elephant conflict is often a difficult subject to broach as it often involves loss of life and livelihoods, fear, anger, and elephants being killed in defence or in retaliation.

We must seek ways to shift people's interactions with forest elephants away from conflict towards something more beneficial, where, not only elephant populations flourish, but also where the people who live alongside them are safe and supported by healthy ecosystems.

Sustainable practices

It is vital that international efforts are intensified to stop ivory trafficking all along the chain, from the source in the forests of Africa all the way to its destinations, particularly in Asia.

In this regard decreasing the demand comes to the forefront as humane task as well as discrediting other luxury items especially in developed countries that pose unnecessary existential threats to vulnerable species.

African forest elephants, with their extraordinary adaptations, social structures, and crucial role in maintaining the rainforest ecosystem, are a remarkable example of the magnificence of nature.

Through concerted conservation efforts, awareness campaigns, and sustainable practices, we can secure a brighter future for the African forest elephants, and by extension, the rich and diverse ecosystems they inhabit.

The author, Dr. Thomas Breuer, is the African Forest Elephant Coordinator at World Wide Fund for Nature, (WWF)

Disclaimer: The viewpoints expressed by the author do not necessarily reflect the opinions, viewpoints and editorial policies of TRT Afrika.

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